Mediterranean bonsai

These are typical Mediterranean trees, they live better outside because they need both the sun and the cold to produce fruit. Most are grown in our fields in Tarragona, the most representative are: olives, citrus and apple.

Quercus sp.

Family

Fagaceae

Origin

Northern Hemisphere, probably North America. Its origin is not very clear due to the high variety and facility to grow hybrids of this species.

Etymology

“kaërquez”, Celtic word that means beautiful tree.

Quercus sp.

Characteristics

They are trees and shrubs of evergreen as well as deciduous leaves. Leaves have a leathery texture, and can be very different between species or even within the same tree. Male flowers present themselves in aments (hanging flower clusters), and female flowers in shanks. The bark tends to be smooth in the young stages of the tree but becomes rougher and broken when the tree has matured.

“Quercus suber” variety is commonly called cork oak and is the primary source of cork. The fruit of the oak is the acorn.


Place

It can be placed outdoors in direct sunlight. It is very resilient to cold weather in winter but it should be kept away from freezing conditions to protect its roots.


Irrigation

In moderation. In natural conditions it can survive with very little water as its roots are very efficient.


Fertilization

Spring and autumn. In summer it is best to reduce the dosage as it could cause excessive leaf growth. In winter you can stop altogether as it only has minimum growth.

Transplant

Every 2-3 years, at the end of the winter

Substratum

100% Akadama or mixed with 30% of volcanic clay. It can also be mixed with peat. Type of soil is flexible in this species.


Pruning and nipping

Pruning

Structural pruning can be carried out in winter.

Nipping

Once the leaves are fully grown cut a few back and leave 2 new pairs to maintain the structure.

Fencing

spring- summer


Curiosities

Oak wood is highly used to make barrels to produce wine


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Quercus sp.